IJCH 2020 Vol.6(2): 20-24 ISSN: 2382-6177
doi: 10.18178/ijch.2020.6.2.144

The Games of the New Emerging Forces (GANEFO) 1963: The Olympics of the Left

Retno Mustikawati
Abstract—When The International Olympics Committee (IOC) required that sports had to be separated from political elements, President Sukarno actually initiated the Games of New Emerging Forces (GANEFO) in 1963in Indonesia, which based on the sports and political agenda. Sukarno considered that the Olympics was a sport event that channeled the interests of neo-colonialism and imperialism. So, GANEFO was based more on solidarity between the participating countries which consists of non-imperialist, socialist countries, which marked GANEFO famous by calling it the Olympics of the Left. Sukarno's conception of dividing the world into two, one was New Emerging Forces (NEFO) which consisted of progressive states, which he initiated in 1961 as a negation of The Old Established Forces (OLDEFO) which consisted of Imperialist-colonialist countries, then initiated the plan to organize GANEFO in 1963. Indonesia as the initiator plays an important role on this challenge for the International Olympic Committee (IOC). Criticism from the world and the exclusion of Indonesia from the IOC became a risk taken by Sukarno for the implementation of GANEFO. This paper aims to find out why Sukarno chose to take the risk of organizing GANEFO, how was it establish, and why was it establish, and the impact to Indonesian people in the eyes of the world.

Index Terms—GANEFO, NEFO & OLDEFO, Sukarno.

Retno Mustikawati is with College of Liberal Arts, Shanghai University, Department of Global Studies, 99 Shangda Road Baoshan District, Shanghai, China (e-mail: retnomustika7@gmail.com).


Cite: Retno Mustikawati, "The Games of the New Emerging Forces (GANEFO) 1963: The Olympics of the Left," International Journal of Culture and History vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 20-24, 2020.

Copyright © 2020 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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